The benefits of collagen peptides

Written by Dr. The Formettā team

Formettā’s first product focuses on improving the body’s collagen synthesis in our bodies—but why concentrate on collagen?

Ageing impacts structure

Collagen is the most abundant protein in our bodies. It provides structure, stability, and strength to various tissues, everything from bones to skin (1). Put simply, it’s the glue that holds you together.

Our collagen stores decline as we get older, leading to many of the tell tale signs of ageing (2). There is some good news—we can boost our collagen stores naturally. But most of us find it hard to eat large enough quantities of collagen-rich foods, such as animal skin and bones, to make an impact.

Bioactive collagen peptides to the rescue

Consuming high-quality bioactive collagen peptides can compensate for our largely collagen deficient modern diets. Made from native collagen protein that undergoes a process called hydrolysis, collagen peptides have a low molecular weight—making them easily digestible, highly absorbable and readily distributed in the human body. Not all collagen peptides are created equal, though; the quality of collagen peptides depends on how its extracted from native collagen protein.

Sourced and processed for maximum efficacy

The collagen peptides in Formettā are derived from bovine hide using a controlled enzymatic hydrolysis process. After an extensive review of collagen suppliers in the EU and Switzerland, Formettā selected a German producer with preeminent manufacturing and ingredient standards. The technical processes for producing collagen peptides include extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis, purification, concentration, sterilisation, and drying—all of which break up the triple helix structure of collagen. The collagen’s long chains are hydrolysed to form shorter chains, with further hydrolysis yielding short peptides.

These short peptides are key for high-efficacy collagen supplementing. Not only are they bioactive, which allows for more direct stimulation of body functions, they also have a low molecular weight, making them easily digestible, well-absorbed, and readily distributed in the human body. The production processes used to generate the collagen peptides in Formettā are optimised to produce specific collagen peptides with an average molecular weight of 2.0 kDa.

Studied and sure

Clinical studies (3, 4) have shown the high safety of taking these specific collagen peptides orally. While the majority of collagen supplements on the market are untested and do not disclose the molecular weight or country of origin of their collagen peptides, Formettā uses only collagen peptides that are backed by research and are sourced from Germany—a country known for skilful manufacturing and high quality standards.

The science behind collagen and healthy skin

Several studies report on the connection between daily oral collagen peptides and skin health (5). Healthy skin relies on well-functioning processes in the dermis, a thick layer of living tissues between the outermost layers of the skin, called the epidermis, and the body’s subcutaneous tissues.

Collagen peptides have a dual action mechanism in the dermis. First, they provide the building blocks within the dermis that form collagen and elastin fibres. And secondly, collagen peptides also bind to receptors that are present on fibroblasts (cells in connective tissues that produce collagen and other proteins) to stimulate the production of new collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid—all necessary for healthy, youthful-looking skin.

Benefits beyond better skin

But the advantages of collagen peptides aren’t just limited to supporting skin health. Research into the effects of collagen supplements has demonstrated improvements in the following areas:

Joints

A number of studies (6, 7, 8, 9) have shown that collagen peptides benefit the biosynthesis of matrix molecules of tendons and ligaments. Supplementing with collagen peptides has been clinically proven to improve joint health and relieve joint pain.

Bones

Further research (10, 11, 12, 13, 14) reveals that supplementing with collagen peptides advances bone health by stimulating bone metabolism and improving bone mineral density.

Muscle and body composition

Clinical trials (15, 16) have demonstrated that collagen peptides can enhance muscle mass and strength.

Gut health

The benefits of high-quality collagen peptides for optimal gut health is supported by research (17, 18, 19, 20) that shows its ability to restore and strengthen the function of the intestinal epithelial barrier.

Hair and nails

Evidence from research (21, 22) suggests taking collagen peptides may stimulate longer hair and nail growth and may also prevent brittleness, increasing the strength of hair and nails.

Weight management

Clinical trials (23, 24) indicate that collagen peptides have anti-obesity effects through suppressing fat accumulation and regulating lipid metabolism.

Glucose metabolism

A study (25) shows that oral collagen peptide supplements may benefit glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, renal function, and hypertension management in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

Concentrating on collagen

With all the research that’s gone into the visible benefits of collagen and those below the skin, focusing on smart supplementing with collagen peptides makes good sense. Formettā’s daily collagen supplement works to support healthy bodies—inside and out.


Footnotes

1 Ricard-Blum S. “The collagen family.” Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011;3(1):a004978. Published 2011 Jan 1.

2 Varani J, Dame MK, Rittie L, et al. “Decreased collagen production in chronologically aged skin: roles of age-dependent alteration in fibroblast function and defective mechanical stimulation.” Am J Pathol. 2006;168(6):1861–1868. doi:10.2353/ajpath.2006.051302

3 Proksch, E & Segger, Dörte & Degwert, Joachim & Schunck, Michael & Zague, V & Oesser, S. (2013). “Oral Supplementation of Specific Collagen Peptides Has Beneficial Effects on Human Skin Physiology: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.” Skin pharmacology and physiology. 27. 47-55. 10.1159/000351376.

4 Dasong Liu, Mehdi Nikoo, Gökhan Boran, Peng Zhou, Joe M. “Collagen and Gelatin.” Regenstein Annual Review of Food Science and Technology 2015 6:1, 527-557

5 Sibilla, Sara & Godfrey, Martin & Brewer, Sarah & Budh-Raja, Anil & Genovese, Licia. (2015). “An Overview of the Beneficial Effects of Hydrolysed Collagen as a Nutraceutical on Skin Properties: Scientific Background and Clinical Studies.” The Open Nutraceuticals Journal. 8. 29-42. 10.2174/1876396001508010029.

6 Jiang, J.-X & Yu, Shen & Huang, Q.-R & Zhang, X.-L & Zhang, C.-Q & Zhou, J.-L & Prawitt, Janne. (2014). “Collagen peptides improve knee osteoarthritis in elderly women: A 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.” Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech. 25. 19-23.

7 Kristine L. Clark, Wayne Sebastianelli, Klaus R. Flechsenhar, Douglas F. Aukermann, Felix Meza, Roberta L. Millard, John R. Deitch, Paul S. Sherbondy & Ann Albert (2008) “24-Week study on the use of collagen hydrolysate as a dietary supplement in athletes with activity-related joint pain,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, 24:5, 1485-1496, DOI: 10.1185/030079908X291967

8 Zdzieblik D, Oesser S, Gollhofer A, König D. “Improvement of activity-related knee joint discomfort following supplementation of specific collagen peptides.” Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Jun;42(6):588-595. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2016-0390. Epub 2017 Jan 24.

9 Dar Q-A, Schott EM, Catheline SE, Maynard RD, Liu Z, Kamal F, et al. (2017) “Daily oral consumption of hydrolyzed type 1 collagen is chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory in murine posttraumatic osteoarthritis.” PLoS ONE 12(4): e0174705.

10 König D, Oesser S, Scharla S, Zdzieblik D, Gollhofer A. “Specific Collagen Peptides Improve Bone Mineral Density and Bone Markers in Postmenopausal Women-A Randomized Controlled Study.” Nutrients. 2018;10(1):97. Published 2018 Jan 16. doi:10.3390/nu10010097

11 Moskowitz RW. “Role of collagen hydrolysate in bone and joint disease.” Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2000 Oct;30(2):87-99.

12 Alfonso E. Bello & Steffen Oesser (2006) “Collagen hydrolysate for the treatment of osteoarthritis and other joint disorders: a review of the literature.” Current Medical Research and Opinion, 22:11, 2221-2232.

13 Nomura Y, Oohashi K, Watanabe M, Kasugai S. “Increase in bone mineral density through oral administration of shark gelatin to ovariectomized rats.” Nutrition. 2005 Nov-Dec;21(11-12):1120-6.

14 König D, Oesser S, Scharla S, Zdzieblik D, Gollhofer A. “Specific Collagen Peptides Improve Bone Mineral Density and Bone Markers in Postmenopausal Women-A Randomized Controlled Study.” Nutrients. 2018;10(1):97. Published 2018 Jan 16. doi:10.3390/nu10010097

15 Zdzieblik, D., Oesser, S., Baumstark, M., Gollhofer, A., & König, D. (2015). “Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: A randomised controlled trial.” British Journal of Nutrition, 114(8), 1237-1245. doi:10.1017/S0007114515002810

16 Oertzen-Hagemann, V.; Kirmse, M.; Eggers, B.; Pfeiffer, K.; Marcus, K.; de Marées, M.; Platen, P. “Effects of 12 Weeks of Hypertrophy Resistance Exercise Training Combined with Collagen Peptide Supplementation on the Skeletal Muscle Proteome in Recreationally Active Men.” Nutrients 2019, 11, 1072.

17 Song W, Chen Q, Wang Y, Han Y, Zhang H, Li B. “Identification and Structure-Activity Relationship of Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function Protective Collagen Peptides from Alaska Pollock Skin.” Mar Drugs. 2019;17(8):450. Published 2019 Jul 31.

18 Chen Q, Chen O, Martins IM, Hou H, Zhao X, Blumberg JB, Li B. “Collagen peptides ameliorate intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in immunostimulatory Caco-2 cell monolayers via enhancing tight junctions.” Food Funct. 2017 Mar 22;8(3):1144-1151.

19 Koutroubakis IE, Petinaki E, Dimoulios P, et al. “Serum laminin and collagen IV in inflammatory bowel disease.” J Clin Pathol. 2003;56(11):817-820.

20 Weiwei Wang, Zhenlong Wu, Gang Lin, Shengdi Hu, Bin Wang, Zhaolai Dai, Guoyao Wu, “Glycine Stimulates Protein Synthesis and Inhibits Oxidative Stress in Pig Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells.” The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 144, Issue 10, October 2014, Pages 1540–1548.

21 Hexsel D, Zague V, Schunck M, Siega C, Camozzato FO, Oesser S. “Oral supplementation with specific bioactive collagen peptides improves nail growth and reduces symptoms of brittle nails.” J Cosmet Dermatol. 2017 Dec;16(4):520-526. doi: 10.1111/jocd.12393. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

22 Watanabe M, Natsuga K, Nishie W, et al. “Type XVII collagen coordinates proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis.” Elife. 2017;6:e26635. Published 2017 Jul 11.

23 Tak YJ, Kim YJ, Lee JG, et al. “Effect of Oral Ingestion of Low-Molecular Collagen Peptides Derived from Skate (Raja Kenojei) Skin on Body Fat in Overweight Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.” Mar Drugs. 2019; 17(3):157. Published 2019 Mar 7.

24 Woo, M.; Song, Y.O.; Kang, K.-H.; Noh, J.S. “Anti-Obesity Effects of Collagen Peptide Derived from Skate (Raja kenojei) Skin Through Regulation of Lipid Metabolism.” Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 306.

25 Zhu, Cui-Feng Zhang, FanChen, Yun et al. “Therapeutic Effects of Marine Collagen Peptides on Chinese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Primary Hypertension.” The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Volume 340, Issue 5, 360 – 366.